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Archwire: Wire applied to two or more teeth through fixed attachments to cause or guide orthodontic tooth movement.

Band (orthodontic): A thin metal ring, usually stainless steel, which serves to secure orthodontic attachments to a tooth. The band, with orthodontic attachments welded or soldered to it, is closely adapted to fit the contours of the tooth and them cemented into place.

Full-archwire: An archwire extending from molar region to molar region.

Gingiva: The tissue that surrounds the teeth consisting of a fibrous tissue that is continuous with the periodontal ligament and a mucosal that is continuous with the lining of the mouth.

Hygiene: The practice of measures designed to attain and preserve health.

Ligature: A tie used to secure individual teeth to an orthodontic archwire, typically made of wire or elastic material.